PIYYUT (Heb. פִּיּוּט; plural: piyyutim; from the Greek ποιητής), a lyrical composition intended to embellish an obligatory prayer or any other religious ceremony, communal or private. In a wider sense, piyyut is the totality of compositions composed in various genres of Hebrew liturgical poetry from the first centuries of the Common Era until the beginning of the Haskalah. In ancient times, the piyyutim were intended to replace most of the set versions of prayer and to serve as substitutes. They ensured variety of the obligatory prayers, mainly on Sabbaths and festivals. In a later period, when the prayers became fixed, sections of piyyut were interspersed in certain places within the set pattern of the prayers. Naturally, most of the very extensive piyyut literature is devoted to the adornment of the major holy days. However, during the early Oriental (eastern) period of the history of the piyyut, liturgical compositions were also produced in great abundance for regular Sabbaths, for simple fast days, and even for weekdays. Obligatory prayers were also embellished with special sets of piyyutim for private occasions, such as weddings, circumcisions, and mourning. (See Table: Piyyut.) -The History of the Piyyut Piyyut literature began in Ereẓ Israel while the various versions of the obligatory prayers were crystallizing. Though the evidence from this period is limited, texts of ancient piyyutim are to be found scattered in talmudic sources, and piyyutim which apparently were composed during this period were absorbed into the established versions of the various rites of prayer. These ancient segments are recognizable by their lofty style and characteristic rhythm; they do not as yet use rhyme. The ancient compositions, known in part from the Cairo Genizah and in part from other sources, and similarly characterized by their style and rhythm, were also apparently composed during this period, which may be called "the period of the anonymous piyyut." The earliest paytan known to us by name is yose b. yose , who lived and worked in Ereẓ Israel in approximately the sixth century or even earlier. His works still retain the above-mentioned characteristics of the form; they do not employ rhyme, even though something similar to rhyme can be seen in his teki'ot, where similar words are employed as line endings. With Yose b. Yose begins the period of the paytanim whose names are known; the period is represented by a group of important poets from Ereẓ Israel, who all seem to have been functioning before Ereẓ Israel was conquered by the Arabs (636 C.E.). The most important of these paytanim are yannai , simeon b. megas , eleazar b. kallir , Ḥaduta b. Abraham , Joshua ha-Kohen,   and Joseph b. Nisan from Shaveh Kiryatayim. During their period, the structural framework of most of the classical piyyut types was finally crystallized. Even after Ereẓ Israel was conquered by the Arabs, all the great paytanim worked in the East; from then until the beginning of the 11th century this literature flourished; a great quantity of piyyutim was produced. For the first time paytanim from abroad, such as Solomon Suleiman b. ʾ Amr al-Sanjari, Nissi al-Nahrawani, saadiah gaon , Joseph al-Bardani, and others, begin to appear. Outstanding among the paytanim of Ereẓ Israel are phinehas b. jacob ha-kohen from Kafra at the beginning of the period, and samuel ha-shelishi b. hoshana at its close. Toward the end of the period, creative activity spread to North Africa, which in the tenth and eleventh centuries became a fruitful extension of Oriental piyyut. On European soil, the first blossoms of piyyut literature appeared in Byzantine southern Italy in the second half of the ninth century. Only a few piyyutim from among the creations of the early Italian paytanim, silano , shephatiah , and his son amittai , are now extant, but even these testify to an extensive and consolidated literary activity, which, despite a number of interesting points of originality, reveals blatant signs of the influence of Ereẓ Israel. The creative work of the paytanim of southern Italy became, in the tenth century, a basis for the development of piyyut in central and northern Italy. The paytanim working there, headed by solomon b. judah ha-bavli , created a precedent for Central European piyyut, whose major representatives henceforth worked in Italy, Ashkenaz (Germany), France, and Byzantine Greece. The most important region of Central European sacred poetry was Germany, where the piyyut developed impressively because of the activity of a number of great paytanim in the 10th–11th centuries, such as moses b. kalonymus , meshullam b. kalonymus (both of Italian extraction), simeon b. isaac , and Meir b. Isaac. In the succeeding centuries, Ashkenazi piyyut continued to develop, and a number of important composers made major contributions to the literature. The direct continuation of Oriental piyyut was in Spain, where, beginning in the middle of the tenth century, several generations of great composers functioned. Outstanding among these are joseph ibn abitur , solomon ibn gabirol , isaac ibn ghayyat , moses ibn ezra , judah halevi , and abraham ibn ezra . These Spanish paytanim attained impressive peaks of perfection. Even though creativity in the realm of piyyut did not cease in Central Europe, Northern Africa, or the East until the beginning of the Haskalah, the 13th century marks the beginning of the decline; later paytanim, despite their often impressive productivity, failed to create major works. Although some of their poetry was included in local prayer rites, most of it has been excluded from accepted prayer books. -Types of Piyyut Piyyutim can be divided according to their liturgical purpose into a number of categories, differing in their histories and development, their structures, and their distribution. In different periods, certain types of piyyutim were more prevalent than others. The earliest and most important types of piyyut are the kerovah and the yoẓer. The kerovah is designed for inclusion in the Amidah prayer, while the yoẓer belongs to the benedictions before and after the shema in the Shaḥarit service. The kerovot divide into a number of secondary categories, according to the types of Amidah to which they are attached: the kerovah of the daily Amidah is called kerovat Shemoneh Esreh because of the 18 blessings in that Amidah; that of Musaf or Ma'ariv Amidah for Sabbaths and the holy days is called shivata because of the seven blessings in these Amidot; while that of the Shaḥarit Amidah of the Sabbath and holy days, which include a kedushah, is called kedushata (in ancient Ereẓ Israel, kedushah was said on Sabbaths and festivals only in the Shaḥarit service). Each of the types of kerovah has its own structural characteristics. The kerovah, mainly the kedushata, is thought of as the dominant type of ancient piyyut. The yoẓer is combined from several types of piyyut, according to the structure of the permanent prayers replaced or embellished by piyyut. The yoẓer enjoyed great circulation mainly in the second period of Oriental piyyut, between the seventh and eleventh centuries. Parallel to the yoẓerot, which were intended for Shaḥarit, there are also, during this period, piyyutim of Ma'ariv, intended to adorn the blessings before and after the Shema in the evening service. This type of piyyut, however, was never widely employed. Among the kerovot of the major holidays, a number of special types of piyyut for different occasions are found. These include tekiʿata, which adorns the malkhuyyot , zikhronot , and shofarot blessings in the Musaf Amidot for New Year; Seder ha-avodah (which describes the sacrificial service on the Day of Atonement during the time the Temple was in existence), in the Musaf kerovah of the Day of Atonement; or the azharot , which discuss the list of 613 mitzvot in the Torah, in the shivatot of Musaf for Shavuot. The kerovot for fast days include seliḥot (penitential), while the kerovot for the Ninth of Av include kinot (dirges). In some communities these seliḥot and kinot were removed in later periods from the kerovot and placed after them. Seliḥot were also composed for the Days of Penitence during the month of Elul and between New Year and the Day of Atonement. The special processions for the days of Tabernacles (Sukkot) were embellished with hoshana piyyutim (see hoshanot ). In the early period of piyyut, works were not composed to adorn religious ceremonies outside of the obligatory prayers, except for the Grace after Meals, and even in that case, they were probably intended, from the start, for use at communal festive meals or at meals for religious ceremonies. Similarly, ashkavah piyyutim were composed in this period (aftarot, or ẓidduk hadin, "funeral services"). All the classical types of piyyut were cultivated to some   extent by the later European paytanim. However, the scope of the piyyut literature was greatly enlarged, mainly in Spain, by the creation of a number of new types of piyyut. The Spanish paytanim preceded the accepted patterns of the yoẓer with a number of piyyut passages which they interlaced in the prayer said on Sabbaths and festivals before the yoẓer prayers. These types are known as the nishmat, the muḥarakh, the illufinu, and the kol aẓmotai. The Spanish paytanim also cultivated the type known as reshut (pl. reshuyyot, "introductory piyyutim "), and they joined these works to the Barukh she-Amar prayer, to nishmat, to kaddish after nishmat, to barekhu , and so on. In addition to their extensive work with these types, the Spanish paytanim developed new types of special piyyutim for private religious ceremonies, such as Sabbath songs and havdalot , as well as types of religious poetry intended to satisfy the spiritual needs of the individual. To a certain extent, the Ashkenazi paytanim followed them in these areas. A considerable part of the creative efforts of the European paytanim was dedicated to the type known as seliḥot for fast days and days of penitence. Because of the great creative activity in this area, a number of secondary types within the category have been distinguished, some partly because of thematic distinctions and some because of formal distinctions. The early Oriental seliḥah recognized only the category ḥatanu (seliḥot of confession), and the tokhaḥah ("rebuke") as a secondary type. In a later period, the akedah type was added to them, in which God's mercy is requested for Israel because of the merit of the binding of Isaac. According to structural distinctions, a number of secondary types of seliḥot are distinguishable, of which the important ones are the pizmon (a seliḥah with an opening refrain and a strophe), and the mustagib (a seliḥah in which a biblical passage appears as a refrain at the end of every verse). In specific sources, especially Ashkenazi, the seliḥot are distinguished by special names according to their place in the calendar, their composers, the way they are said, or the number of lines in their poetic phrases. -Language and Style The style and the vocabulary of the paytanim vary in the different periods and different poetic schools. In the anonymous period of piyyut, the style followed the stylistic and lexical paths of the permanent prayers; the vocabulary is mostly biblical, even though some later linguistic bases – midrashic and talmudic – may be found in it. The style of the piyyutim is lucid and clear and contains little wordplay or rhetorical embellishment. With the work of Yannai, Hebrew sacral poetry becomes more and more expansive in its vocabulary and increasingly vague and flowery in its style. During the whole Oriental period of the piyyut, the composers used not only the whole Hebrew lexicon, with all its various layers and strata (to a certain extent, in the early piyyut creations, ancient Hebrew words with no mention in the sources are preserved) but they also adorned the piyyut with idioms and words of their own creation. The poetic novelties of language and form, which do not always fit the classical rules of Hebrew grammar, gave a singular stylistic character to the poetic creations, and frequently aroused harsh criticism. These paytanim (who are included among those of the Kallir school, so called after its major representative, the paytan Eleazar b. Kallir), often used a complicated set of terms, flavoring their works with an abundance of talmudic and midrashic material, or with (sometimes vague) allusions to this material. Thus, some of their works became enigmatic, constituting difficult exegetical problems. From a linguistic point of view, piyyut reached its peak in the works of Saadiah Gaon and his pupils, during the tenth and eleventh centuries. The paytanim of the "Saadiah school" were the most radical in establishing novel uses of language in their piyyutim. As a reaction to the Saadianic style of exaggerated innovations, and probably under the influence of the new ways and principles of Andalusian arabized secular poetry and of philological studies, Hebrew sacred poetry in Spain crystallized within clearly biblical frameworks of language and style. The first of the Spanish paytanim composed their works according to the example of the later Oriental paytanim. In addition to the works written in this style, there exists a parallel group of works, written in the Spanish model in a language which strives to recognize only a biblical vocabulary and in a style which strives to free itself of talmudic and midrashic material and allusions to the teachings of the rabbis. The style of the Spanish piyyutim is impressively lucid and flexible, approaching the style of secular poetry; in this period, sacred poetry was notably influenced by secular poetry both in form and in lyrical means of expression. Solomon ibn Gabirol was instrumental in the process by which the piyyut was increasingly purified of the linguistic-stylistic exaggerations of eastern piyyut; the earliest of the Spanish paytanim whose work appears to be entirely within the new stylistic framework is Isaac Ibn Ghayyat. During this period, the style of writing of the Spanish paytanim greatly influenced the paytanim of other lands, such as North Africa, Yemen, Ereẓ Israel, Babylonia, and Provence. Certain traces of Spanish influence are found also in later Ashkenazi piyyut. In general, Central European piyyut remained faithful to the Kallir model in language and style. Even so, Italian and Ashke-nazi poets were more restrained and moderate in their use of language and style. In the creations of the greatest of them, the poetic language reaches impressive heights of beauty and flexibility. -Rhyme and Meter The ancient anonymous piyyut did not employ rhyme. The piyyutim composed during this period with the characteristic method of dividing each poetic line into four feet, each one having two or three stresses, are limited. With the beginning of the use of rhyme, or more specifically, with the period of the literary activity of Yannai, the paytanim concentrate much   more on rhyme than on rhythm. Those of the Kallir school attained great virtuosity in their methods of rhyming and playing with rhyme, and this lowered the level and content of the creations, especially in the works of mediocre paytanim. A number of eastern paytanim wrote their works in a peculiar rhythmic system (known as mishkal ha-tevot), by establishing an identical number of words or stresses in every poetic line, but this method is found in only a few works, and was used more widely in the works of the first Central European paytanim, who also continued and developed the traditions of rhyme of the early Kallir school. It was the Spanish paytanim who introduced a precise method of rhythm in their piyyutim. Many of their works, mainly in the specific types of piyyut which originated in Spain, are subject to the quantitative method of meter – Arabic in its source – of secular poetry, but the major part of their work is in a unique meter created in Spain for sacred poetry. This is mainly syllabic, meting out to each line of poetry a specific fixed number of grammatical syllables. In Spain, however, the paytanim also continued to compose piyyutim without meter, particularly in the classical types of piyyut. Rhyme also developed impressively in Spain, particularly in the short types of piyyut, under the influence of the ezor (Muwassaha) type of secular poems. Many piyyutim, some metered precisely according to the example of the ezor type, some metered according to the special method of Spanish piyyut, have a variegated and rich rhyme, which competes successfully with the best achievements of Hebrew secular poetry in Spain. -Signatures The first paytanim signed their piyyutim only with their own names. Later, they added patronymics and the places where they wrote; and, after a while, they added blessings and the like. At times, the paytanim also added the names of relatives. -Collections of Piyyutim The extent to which piyyutim were incorporated into the prayer service differs in time and locality. In ancient times, there was fierce opposition to the piyyut literature, mainly from the great academy in Babylonia. Nevertheless, it appears that there was a wide use of piyyutim in most of the early eastern communities. During this period there were still no fixed collections of piyyutim for the use of various communities. Rather, each cantor recited piyyutim according to his taste and choice. Only in later periods, when the congregations took greater part in prayer services, was the set recitation of certain piyyutim for various liturgical occasions practiced. These fixed prayers, which multiplied, led to the collections of piyyutim (maḥzorim, books of seliḥot, and kinot) which established for every occasion passages of piyyut, whose recitation was repeated year after year. At first, each community established its own collection, usually by choosing piyyut passages and adding the works of local composers. In a later period, the distinctions between the collections of piyyutim of the various communities became increasingly blurred and, with the invention of printing, unified collections of piyyutim crystallized for different rites of prayer. (See table on following page.) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Waxman, Literature, 1 (1960), ch. 9; 2 (19602), ch. 3; Zunz, Poesie; Zunz, Ritus; Zunz, Lit Poesie; Elbogen, Gottesdienst, 206-31, 280-353; Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 107-80; Mirsky, ibid., 7 (1958), 1-129; A. Mirsky, Reshit ha-Piyyut (1965); S. Abramson, Bi-Leshon Kodemim (1965); Davidson, Oẓar, index, S.V. names of paytanim; J. Yahalom, The Syntax of Ancient Piyyut (including Yannai) as a Basis for its Style (1974). Add. Bibliography: E. Fleischer, Shirat ha-Kodesh ha-Ivrit bi-Ymei ha-Benayim (1975); idem, Ha-Yoẓerot be-Hithavvutam ṿe-Hitpatteḥtam (1984); Sh. Elizur, Piyyutei Eleazar be-Rabi ḳilar ṿe-Yaḥasam li-Yeẓirato shel Eleazar Berabi ḳilir (1981); dem: Paitan be-'Idan shel Mifneh: R. Yehoshu'a Bar Khalfa u-Fiyyutav (1994); idem, Shirah shel Parashah: Parashot ha-Torah bi-Re'i ha-Piyyut (1999); N. Weissenstern (ed.), Piyyutei Yoḥanan ha-Kohen be-Rabi Yehoshu'a (diss., 1983); L. Weinberger, Early Synagogue Poets in the Balkans (1988); A. Mirsky, Ha-Piyyut: Hitpatḥuto be-Ereẓ-Yisra'el u-va-Golah (1990); idem, Me-Ḥovot ha-Levavot le-Shirat ha-Levavot (1992); R.P. Scheindlin, The Gazelle: Medieval Hebrew Poems on God, Israel, and the Soul (1991); I. Levin and A. Sáenz-Badillos, Si me olvido de ti, Jerusalén… Cantos de las Sinagogas de al-Andalus (1992); Z.Z. Breuer, Shirat ha-Kodesh shel Rabi Shelomoh Ibn Gabirol: Tokhen ve-Ẓurah (1993); Eleazar ben Judah, Shirat ha-Roke'ah. Piyyutei Eleazar mi-Vermaiza, ed. I. Meiseles (1993); A.V. Tanenbaum, Poetry and Philosophy: The Idea of the Soul in Andalusian Piyyut (1993); S. Kats, R. Yiẓḥak Ibn Gi'at: Monografyah (1994); E. Hollender, Synagogale Hymnen: Qedushtaót des Simon b. Isaak im Amsterdam Mahsor (1994); idem, Clavis Commentariorum of Hebrew Liturgical Poetry in Manuscript (2005); M. Zulay, Ereẓ-Yisra'el u-Fiyyuteha: Meḥkarim be-Fiyyutei ha-Genizah, ed. E. Ḥazan (1995); idem, Mi-pi Paytanim ve-Shofkhei Siaḥ, ed. Sh. Elitsur (2004); Sh. Spiegel, Avot ha-Piyyut: Mekorot u-Meḥkarim le-Toledot ha-Piyyut be-Ereẓ Yisra'el, ed. M. Schmelzer (1996); M. Zulay and E. Hazan, Ereẓ-Yisra'el u-Fiyyuteha: Meḥkarim be-Fiyyutei ha-Genizah (1995); E.D. Goldschmidt, Meḥkerei Tefillah u-Fiyyut (1996); David Ben-Hasin, Tehilah le-David: Koveẓ Shirato shel David Ben-Hasin; ed. A.E. Elbaz et al. (1996); idem, David Ben-Hasin, Tefillah le-David: Azharot, ed. A.E. Elbaz et al. (2000); idem, Leket Shirei David Ben Hasin: …mi-Tokh Sifro Tehilah le-David (2005); M. Ben-Yashar, Siftei Renanot: Mivḥar Piyyutim le-Shabatot u-le-Mo'adim (1996); Isaac ha-Seniri, Piyyutei R. Yiẓḥak ha-Seniri, ed. B. Bar-Tikva (1996); Y. David, J. Schirmann, et al., Osef Shirei Kodesh: Ketav Yad mi-Sefarad u-mi-Arẓot ha-Magreb me-ha-Me'ah ha-14 (1997); W. van Bekkum, Hebrew Poetry from Late Antiquity: Liturgical Poems of Yehudah (1998); R. Halevi, Shirat Yisra'el be-Teiman: mi-Mivḥar ha-Shirah ha-Shabazit-Teimanit (1998); N. Katsumatah, Sidrei Avodah le-Yom ha-Kippurim min ha-Dorot ha-Semukhim le-R. Se'adyah Ga'on (1998); J. Yahalom, Shirat Benei Yisra'el ba-Tekufah ha-Bizantinit ve-ad Kibushei ha-Ẓalbanim (1996); idem, Piyyut u-Meẓi'ut be-Shilheu ha-Zeman ha-Atik (1999); I. Meiseles, Shirat ha-Miẓvot: Azharot Rabi Eliyahu ha-Zaken (2001); T. Beeri, Ha-Ḥazzan ha-Gadol asher be-Bagdad: Piyyutei Yosef ben Ḥayyim Albaradani (2002); N. Katsumata, The Liturgical Poetry of Nehemiah ben Shelomoh ben Heiman ha-Nasi (2002); idem, Hebrew Style in the Liturgical Poetry of Shmuel Hashlishi (2003); Y. Ratzaby, Shirei R. Shalem Shabazi: Bibliografyah (2003); M. Zulay, and S. Elizur, Mi-pi Paytanim ve-Shofkhei Si'ah (2004); M.D. Swartz and J. Yahalom, Avodah: An Anthology of Ancient Poetry for Yom Kippur (2005). (Ezra Fleischer)   The following list contains: 1\. Those paytanim and pre-modern poets who have individual entries in the Encyclopedia – included are those who are either primarily paytanim or famous as such; 2\. Paytanim and pre-modern poets who do not have individual entries and who are not included in (1) Davidson's Oẓar ha-Shirah ve-ha-Piyyut (vol. 4, pp. 347) which was completed in 1933 (Davidson's additions were published in HUCA 12–13, 1937–38); 3\. Paytanim and pre-modern poets who are in Davidson but on whom new material has been made available in the intervening years. The list is alphabetical according to the first names. The abbreviations used (other than standard) are the following: Bernstein, Italyah – S. Bernstein, Mi-Shirei Yisrael be-Italyah (1939). Bernstein, Piyyutim – S. Bernstein, Piyyutim u-Faytanim meha-Tekufah ha-Bizantinit (1941). Habermann, Ateret – A.M. Habermann, Ateret Renanim (1967). Schirmann, Italyah – J. Schirmann, Mivḥar ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit be-Italyah (1934). Schirmann, Sefarad – J. Schirmann, Ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit bi-Sefarad u-vi-Provence, 2 vols. (1959–60²). Schirmann, Shirim Hadashim – J. Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim min ha-Genizah (1965). Simonsohn, Mantovah – S. Simonsohn, Toledot ha-Yehudim be-Dukkasut Mantovah, 2 vols. (1962–64). YMḤSI – Yedi'ot ha-Makhon le-Ḥeker ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit, 7 vols. (1933–58). piyyut Name Place Dates Aaron b. Abraham of Offenbach Habermann, Ateret, 126–7, 225. Germany 18th century aaron b. isaac hamon Aaron b. Joshua ibn Alamani Alexandria 12th century J. Schirmann, in: YMḤ SI, 6 (1945), 265–85; S.D. Goitein, in: Tarbiz, 28 (1959), 343ff.; A. Scheiber in: Sefarad, 27 (1967), 269–81. Aaron b. Mariyyon ha-Kohen Acre 11/12th century M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 178–80; idem, in: Sinai, 23 (1948), 214–28. Aaron b. Moses Malti Babylonia 16/17th century M. Benayahu, in: Sefunot, 3–4 (1969), 17. Aaron b. Samuel ha-Levi Spain 14/15th century A.M. Habermann, Amarai Kaḥ(1964). aaron hakiman Abner Spain 14th century A.M. Habermann, in: Sefer ha-Yovel… S. Federbush (1961), 173–99. abraham b. daniel Abraham b. Daniel Buttrio Italy b. 1510 M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 309–12, 323–5. Abraham b. Gabriel Zafrana Corfu 16th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 19–22 (Heb. part). Abraham b. Isaac Babylonia? 10/11th century M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 25 (1949), 46–47. Abraham b. Isaac Italy 11th century H. Schirmann, in: Leshonenu, 21 (1957), 212–9; S. Abramson, ibid., 25 (1961), 31–34. abraham b. isaac bedersi Abraham b. Isaac Da Pisa Italy 16th century Bernstein, Italyah, passim. Abraham b. Isaac he-Ḥ asid Tawil Lybia S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 15 (1944), 97, 101–7; idem, in: Ha-Tekufah, 32–33 (1948), 780; D. Yarden, in: Sefunot, 8 (1964), 259, 266–72. Abraham b. Jacob Germany 11/12th century H. Merhaviah, in: Tarbiz, 39 (1970), 277–84. Abraham b. Jacob Germany or France 12th century Habermann, Ateret, 18–19, 225. Abraham b. Jacob Gavison Algiers 1520–1578 R.S. Sirat, in: Fourth World Congress of Jewish Studies Papers, 2 (1968), 66–67. Abraham b. Joseph ha-Kohen Ereẓ Israel 11th century M. Zulay in: Sinai, 28 (1951), 162.   piyyut Abraham b. Mattathias Rome 12th century Schirmann, Italyah, 78–79. Abraham b. Mereno ha-Kohen Corfu 13th century Bernstein, Piyyutim, 27–28. Abraham b. Moses Doresh 14th century A.M. Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 30 (1956), 149, 151–2. Abraham b. Samuel Spain 13th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 457–58; S. Abramson, in: Leshonenu la-Am, 18 (1967), 67ff. Abraham b. Samuel ha-Levi *Ibn Ḥasdai *Abraham b. Samuel he-Ḥasid (of Speyer) Abraham b. Shabbetai Kohen Greece, Padua 1670–1729 Schirmann, Italyah, 358. Abraham b. Solomon ha-Levi Buqarat Spain, Tunis 15/16th century H.H. Ben-Sasson in: Tarbiz, 31 (1961), 59–71; A.M. Habermann, ibid., 301. Abraham Di Medina Egypt 17th century M. Benayahu, in: KS, 35 (1960), 530. Abraham ha-Kohen Babylonia 10th century A. Scheiber, in: Zion, 30 (1965), 123–7. Abraham Ḥazzan Gerondi Spain 13th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 291–4. Abraham *Ibn Al-Rabib Abraham *Ibn Ezra Abraham Kohen Crete 16th century N. Ben-Menahem, in: Sinai, 13 (1943), 363–5. Abraham *Kurtabi (Kortabi) Abraham Maimin Safed d. 1570? A.M. Habermann, Toledot ha-Piyyut ve-ha-Shirah (1970), 141; M. Benayahu, in: KS, 35 (1960), 528. Abu Ibrahim Isaac ibn Maskaran Spain 12th century J. Schirmann, in: YMHSI, 4 (1938), 277. Abu Isaac Abraham *Harizi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim *Ibn Sahl Adonim b. Nissim ha-Levi Fez 10/11th century N. Allony in: Sinai, 43 (1958), 393–4; Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 58–62. *Ahimaaz b. Paltiel Ahitub b. Isaac Palermo 13th century J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 132–47. Akiva b. Jacob Frankfurt 1520?–1597 J.L. Bialer, Min ha-Genazim (1967), 69–77. *Ali (b. David) Orient 12/13th century M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 23 (1948), 214–28. Ali b. Ezekiel ha-Kohen Egypt 11th century A.M. Habermann, in: Sinai, 53 (1963), 183–4, 191–2. *Alvan b. Abraham *Amittai *Amnon of Mainz Amram b. Moses Ḥazzan Ereẓ Israel 10th century? S. Assaf and L.A. Mayer (eds.), Sefer ha-Yishuv, 2 (1944), 54; Habermann, Ateret, 149, 212, 230. *Anan b. Marinus ha-Kohen Anatoli Italy 12th century J. Schirmann, in: YMHSI, 1 (1933), 106–7, 121–4. Anatoli (Zerahiah) b. David Cazani Greece 12th century J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 107; J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 27–29 (Heb. part). *Aryeh Judah Harari Asher b. Isaac ha-Levi Worms 11/12th century S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-MeḤkarim, 2 (1963), 197–201; E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem, of Azriel b. Abraham, 4 (1963), 15–16. Avigdor *Kara   piyyut Avtalyon b. Mordecai Turkey 17th century Azriel b. Joseph Orient 13th century Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 392–6. *Baḥya (Baḥye) b. Joseph ibn Paquda Barhun (Abraham; may be *Abraham b. Sahalan) M. Zulay, Ha-Askolah ha-Paytanit shel Rav Sa'adyah Ga'on (1964), 35. *Baruch b. Samuel of Mainz Ben ha-Melekh ve-ha-Nazir Benjamin b. Abraham *Anav *Benjamin b. Azriel *Benjamin b. Ḥiyya *Benjamin b. Samuel ha-Levi *Benjamin b. Zerah Germany 11th century Habermann, Ateret, 176–7, 226. Benjamin Peraḥyah Greece? 14th century? Bernstein, Piyyutim, 36–39. Benveniste b. Ḥiyya al-Dayyan Spain 12/13th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 23–26 (Heb. part). Ben Zion Aryeh Gerondi Padua 1763–1820? Habermann, Ateret, 128–9, 226. *Berechiah b. Natronai ha-Nakdan Caleb b. Said Babylonia 10th century M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 25 (1949), 36–37. Daniel b. Samuel *Rossena *David b. Aaron ibn Ḥassin David b. Gedaliah France or Italy 12th century Habermann, Ateret, 173–4, 226. David b. Huna Italy 10th century S. Bernstein, in: Sefer ha-Yovel, Meir Waxman (1966), 45–58. David b. Nasi Orient 11th century J. Ratzaby, in: Tarbiz, 14 (1943), 204–13. David b. Saadiah ha-Kohen Yemen 17th century J. Tubi, in: Ba-Ma'arakhah, 11 (1971), no. 121, 18–19. David b. Samson France 13th century? H. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 43–44. David b. Yom Tov *Ibn Bilia David ha-Kohen Spain or Provence 13th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (1956), 463–5; Habermann, Ateret, 175, 226. David *Ibn Paquda David Onkinerah Salonika 16th century J. Patai, in: Kobez al-Jad, 12 (1937), 75–119. Dosa b. Joshua ha-Ḥazzan S. Abrason, in: Tarbiz, 15 (1944), 55–59. Dunash b. Judah Kairouan 11th century N. Allony, in: Sinai, 43 (1958), 90, 387, 396–400; Habermann, Ateret, 94–95. *Eleazar Eleazar b. Abun Ereẓ Israel S. Spiegel, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 267–91. *Eleazar b. Ḥalfon ha-Kohen Eleazar b. Phinehas Ereẓ Israel M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 147–8. Eleazar ha-Ḥazzan Ereẓ Israel M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 155–6. Eleazar Hodaya Ereẓ Israel E. Fleisher, in: Tarbiz, 36 (1967), 342 ff. Eleazar *Kallir Eleazar Kohen Spain A. Scheiber, in: Sinai, 35 (1954), 183–6.   piyyut Eliakim Crimea 14/15th century S. Bernstein, in: Sefer Yovel li-Khevod S.K. Mirsky (1958), 465–6, 478–9. Eliakim b. Abraham Europe 14/15th century D. Pagis, in: Sefer Hayyim Schirmann (1970), 247–8. Eliashib Joshua Provencale Italy 16th century M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed by Y. Raphael (1969), 313, 340. Eliezer b. Ephraim Germany or France 13th century Urbach, Tosafot, 414–6. *Eliezer b. Samson Eliezer de Mordo Corfu 17/18th century Bernstein, Piyyutim, 16–18; S. Simonsohn, in: PAAJR, 34 (1966), 106–8. Eliezer Gentili (Ḥefeẓ) Italy 18th century Schirmann, Italyah, 398. Eliezer Leizer b. Judah Loeb Germany 17th century A.M. Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 89 (1964), 20–23. Elijah b. Abraham Greece 15th century? Bernstein, Piyyutim, 63–65. Elijah b. David Mazzal Tov Corfu 1575–1625 Bernstein, Piyyutim, 65–67. Elijah b. Eliezer Delmedigo Crete 16th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 34–37 (Heb. part). *Elijah b. Eliezer Philosoph Elijah b. Menahem ha-Zaken Le Mans 11th century A.M. Habermann (ed.), Shirei ha-Yiḥud ve-ha-Kavod (1948), 87–97. Elijah b. Mordecai Italy 10th century A. Mirsky, in: Sinai, (1969), 179–87. Elijah b. Moses *Kapuzato Elijah b. Samuel Macedonia 15th century A.M. Habermann, Sefer ha-Yovel… Ḥ. Albeck (1963), 160–76. Elijah b. Shemaiah Bari 11th century Schirmann, Italyah, 41–47; Habermann, Ateret, 22–24, 225. Elijah b. Shalom, or, Samuel Germany 13th century? A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Sept. 21, 1960). *Elijah Chelebi-ha-Kohen Anatolia Elijah of Buttrio Italy 16th century M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 312–3, 326–39. ("En") Maimon *Galipapa *Ephraim b. Isaac of Regensburg Ephraim b. Joab Modena (Italy) 14th century Schirmann, Italyah, 200–2. Ezekiel b. Ali ha-Kohen Albasir Persia, Iraq, or Egypt 11th century M. Zulay, in: YMHSI, 3 (1936), 57–58; A. Mirsky, Yalkut ha-Piyyutim (1958), 60–63. Ezekiel (Hezekiah) David b. Mordecai *Abulafia (Bolaffi) Gamaliel b. Moses Egypt 12th century Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 126–9. Gershom b. Solomon b. Isaac France or Germany 12th century J. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 3 (1939), 41–43. *Haduta b. Abraham ha-Efrati Hananel b. Amnon Italy 10th century S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 201–2. Hananiah Orient 12th century S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 213. Hananiah Eliakim b. Asael Raphael Rieti Bologna and Mantua 1561–1623 Simonsohn, Mantovah, 2 (1964), 544. Ḥarizi Spain Habermann, Ateret 113, 226 Ḥayyim b. Machir Regensburg 13th century J. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 58–62; A.M. Habermann, Gezerot Ashkenaz ve-Ẓarefat (1946), 198–202.   piyyut Ḥiyya b. Al-Daudi Spain d. 1153/54 S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 99–104, 208–17, 313–37. Immanuel b. David *Frances Immanuel Benevento Italy 16th century I. Sonne, Mi-Paulus ha-Revi'I ad Pius ha-Hamishi (1954), 110–7. Immanuel b. Joseph Spain 14th century S. Bernstein, Al Naharot Sefarad (1956), 191–3, 269–70. *Immanuel b. Solomon of Rome Isaac, poet of Ezrat Nashim Castile 13th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (1956), 87–96. *Isaac (Isḥak) Isaac *Al-Avani Isaac Amigo Turkey 17th century M. Benayahu in: KS, 35 (1960), 528–9. Isaac b. Abraham Provence 13th century G. Sed-Rajna, in: REJ, 126 (1967), 265–7. *Isaac b. Abraham ha-Gorni Greece 15th century? Isaac b. Abraham ha-Parnas Bernstein, Piyyutim, 67–71. Isaac b. Fayun Egypt? early poet Habermann, Ateret, 120, 228. *Isaac b. Ḥayyim b. Abraham *Isaac b. Joseph ibn *Pollegar *Isaac b. Judah *Isaac b. Judah *Gerondi *Isaac b. Judah ha-Seniri Isaac b. Kalo (nymus?) Romania? 14/15th century? Habermann, Ateret, 148, 228 Isaac b. Levi *ibn Mar Saul Isaac b. Moses Hezekiah ha-Levi Italy 16th century M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 317, 349–51. Isaac b. Solomon *Alḥadib Spain, Syracuse, 14th century I. Davidson in: Tarbiz, 11 (1940), 111; C. Roth, in: JQR, 47 (1956–57), 324. Palermo Isaac b. Solomon he-Haver Ereẓ Israel 10/11th century M. Zulay, in: Sefer Assaf (1953), 303–6. *Isaac b. Yakar Germany 12th century A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Sept. 25, 1955). Isaac b. Zerahiah ha-Levi Gerondi Spain 13th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (1956), 285–90; A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (May 28, 1963). Isaac de Leon Egypt 17th century M. Wallenstein, in: Sefer ha-Yovel, Tiferet Yisrael to I. Brody (1966), 171–78 (Heb. part). Isaac ha-Ḥazzan b. Joseph Ereẓ Israel? 10/11th century? M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 16 (1945), 39–48. Isaac ha-Levi Orient 13th century? A.M. Habermann, in: Eked, 3 (1960), 91–98. Isaac Ḥandali Crimea 15th century S. Bernstein, in Sefer Hadoar (1957), 83–85; idem, in: Sefer Yovel li-Khevod S.K. Mirsky (1958), 466, 486–8. Isaac ibn Al-Shami Spain 12th century J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 259–60. Isaac *ibn Ezra Isaac *ibn Ghayyat Isaac ibn *Gikatilla Spain 10/11th century M. Zulay, in: Tarbiz, 20 (1950), 161–76. Isaac (Abu Ibrahim) *ibn Khalfun Isaac *ibn Kaprun Isaac *ibn Shuwayk   piyyut Isaac Salmah Turkey 16th century J. Schirmann, in: KS, 12 (1935–36), 393. Isaac Samuel Greece 18th century J.M. Matza, Aiannistika hebraika tragoudia (1953), 55–56. Isaiah Hai b. Joseph *Carmi Ishmael Ḥanina b. Mordecai of Volmontono Bologna, Ferrara 16th century M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 320–21, 357–58. *Israel b. Joel (Susslin) Israel b. Moses *Najara Israel Berechiah Fontanella Rovigo, Reggio d. 1763 R. Patai, Shirei R. Yisrael Berekhyah Fontanella (1933). Jacob Ereẓ Israel early poet M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 157; Habermann, Ateret, 119–20, 228. Jacob Al'ayin Babylonia? 10/11th century Habermann, Ateret, 182–228. Jacob Amron Turkey M. Benayahu, in: KS, 35 (1960), 529. Jacob b. Abraham (Angelo d'Ascoli) Italy 15th century Schirmann, Italyah, 193–94. *Jacob b. Dunash b. Akiva *Jacob b. Eleazar Jacob b. Eliezer Guenzburg-Ulma Ulm (Germany) 16th century J.L. Bialer, Min ha-Genazim (1967), 63–69. Jacob b. Isaac Segre Italy 16/17th century M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 316, 348–9. Jacob b. Joab Elijah *Fano Jacob b. Judah Germany 13th century H. Peri, in: Tarbiz, 24 (1955), 426 ff. Jacob b. Judah ibn Ala'mani Alexandria 12th century S. Abramson, in: YMḤSI, 7 (1958), 163–81. *Jacob b. Naphtali Jacob Hai (Vita) Israel Italy, Amsterdam 18th century Schirmann, Italyah, 408–9. Jacob ibn Albene Toledo 14th century C. Roth, in JQR, 39 (1948–49), 123–50. Jacob Israel Bilgradi Ferrara 18th century Bernstein, Italyah, 86–90, 165–6. Jacob Kunat Morocco 12/13th century S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 214. (Jacob?) Manish b. Meir Austria 17th century J.L. Bialer, Min ha-Genazim (1967), 77–78. Jacob of Castilia Spain, Fez S. Bernstein, in: Aresheth, 1 (1958), 15–16, 20. Jacob Tarfon Salonika 16th century H. Brody, in: Minhah le-David dedicated to D. Yellin (1935), 205–220. Jeduthun ha-Levi 12th century S. Assaf, in: Minḥah li-Yhudah to J.L. Zlotnik (1950), 162–9. Jehiel b. Abraham Rome d. before 1070 Schirmann, Italyah, 48–54; idem, in: Scritti in memoria di E. Sereni (1970), 92–107 (Heb. part). Jehiel b. Asher Spain 14th century Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 82 (1963), 38–41; idem, Ateret, 191–3, 200–1, 228. Jehiel b. Israel Luria Padua 16th century M. Benayahu, in: Babbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 315–6, 345–8. Jehiel b. Joab min ha-Anavim (Anav) Rome 13th century N. Pavoncello, in: Miscellanea di Studi in memoria di D. Disegni (1969), 190–2, 195–7. Jehiel b. Joseph Germany 14th century Urbach, Tosafot, 317.   piyyut Jehoseph b. Hanan b. Nathan *Ezobi Jekuthiel Spain 12th century J. Schirmann, YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 262. Jekuthiel b. Isaac *ibn Hasan Jekuthiel of Vilna Italy 18th century I. Tishbi, in: Sefer Yovel le-Y. Baer (1960), 385ff. *Jerahmeel b. Solomon Joab Syria 13th century S. Bernstein: Sinai, 19 (1946), 213–4; idem, in: Ha-Tekufah, 32–33 (1948), 774–5. Joab Almagia Italy 18th century C. Roth and C. Rabin, in: Metsudah, 5–6 (1948), 262–83. Joab b. Benjamin Rome 13/14th century Schirmann, Italyah, 135–6. Joab b. Daniel Rome 13th century Schirmann, Italyah, 133–4. Joab b. Jehiel de Synagoga Bet-El Rome 14th century Schirmann, Italyah, 170–1. Joab b. Nathan b. Daniel de Sinagoga Rome 13/14th century J.N. Pavoncello, in: Scritti in memoria di E. Sereni (1970), 119–32 (Heb. part). *Joab the Greek *Johanan b. Joshua ha-Kohen Johanan-Judah (Angelo) Alatrino Italy 16/17th century Schirmann, Italyah, 256–60. Jonah ha-Kohan Rappa Italy 17th century Schirmann, Italyah, 327–31. Joseph (Abu `Amar) ibn Hasdai Saragossa 11th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 1 (19592), 171–5. Joseph *Albaradani Joseph *Almanzi Joseph Baruch b. Jedidiah Zechariah of Urbino Mantua, Modena 17th century Schirmann, Italyah, 274–5. and Busseto Joseph b. Abraham Almosnino Salonika? 15/16th century D. Yarden, in: Sefunot, 8 (1964), 258–60; 264–5. *Joseph b. Asher (of Chartres) Joseph b. David ibn Suli Toledo d. after 1306 S. Bernstein in: Al Naharot Sefarad (1956), 138–42, 144–5, 251–4; Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 485–8. Joseph b. Isaac Orléans 12th century S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 26 (1957), 465–8. Joseph b. Israel Yemen 16th century J. Ratzaby, in: Yeda Am, 12 (1967), 56–60. *Joseph b. Jacob Joseph b. Jacob (Abu Amr) *ibn Sahl Joseph b. Jacob ha-Levi Morocco 15/16th century N. Ben-Menahem, in: Aresheth, 2 (1960), 404–5. Joseph b. Jacob Kalai Crimea 13th century? S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 214; J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 11–14 (Heb. part). Joseph b. Joshua ibn Vives Lorki Spain 14/15th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 15–18 (Heb. part). *Joseph b. Kalonymus ha-Nakdan Joseph b. Mattathias Italy 13th century S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 7 (1936), 181–5. Joseph b. Meir b. Ezra Greece? 14th century? Bernstein, Piyyutim, 57–62. Joseph b. Meir ibn Al-Muhadjir Andalusia 11/12th century Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 215–6. Joseph b. Moses *Alashkar   piyyut Joseph b. Nathan Ḥazzan Germany 12th century A.L. Katch, in: JQR, 58 (1967), 89–94, 60 (1968–9), 1–5; J. Schirmann, in: KS, 44 (1969), 427–8. Joseph Ben-Ram Egypt 17th century M. Wallenstein, in: Sefer Ḥayyim Schirmann (1970) 116ff. Joseph b. Samuel Z!arefati (Giuseppe Gallo) Florence 15/16th century M.D. Cassuto, in: Meḥkarim le-Zikhron R.A. Kohut (1935), 121–28 (Heb. part). *Joseph b. Sheshet ibn Latimi *Joseph b. Solomon of Carcassonne *Joseph b. Solomon *Yahya *Joseph b. Tanhum ha-Yerushalmi Joseph Cibzio Italy 17th century S. Olivetti, Rassegna Mensile di Israel, 25 (1959), 22–25. Joseph Fiametta (Lehavah) Italy d. 1721 J. Schirmann, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 101. Joseph *Ganso Joseph ibn al-Shami Spain 12th century H. Schirmann, YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 253–8. Joseph *ibn Barzel Joseph *ibn Zabara Joseph *Kaspi Joseph *Kimḥi *Joseph Saul Abdallah Joseph Shalim Gallego Joseph Sofer Spain 11th century S.M. Stern, in: Zion, 11 (1950), 141–3. *Joshua Ereẓ Israel early poet Habermann, Ateret 158f., 227. *Joshua b. Elijah ha-Levi Joshua b. Joseph ha-Kohen Egypt 11th century M. Zulay, in: Haaretz (Jan. 10, 1949); ibid. (Dec. 12, 1952) Joshua Ben-Zion Segre Italy 1718–1798 J. Schirmann, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 100. Joshua ha-Kohen Ereẓ Israel early poet M. Zulay, in: Alei Ayin (1952), 89–90; E. Fleischer, in: Tarbiz, 36 (1967), 146ff., 342ff. Joshua he-Haver b. Nathan Ereẓ Israel 11th century E. Fleischer, in: Tarbiz, 38 (1969), 280–2. *Josiphiah (Jehosiphiah) the Proselyte Judah Egypt or Ereẓ Israel 9th or 10th century M. Zulay, Zur Liturgie der Babylonischen Juden (1933); Habermann, Ateret, 121ff., 226 Judah *Abrabanel (Leone Ebreo) Judah *al-Ḥarizi Judah b. Aaron *Kilti Judah b. Hillel ha-Levi Erez Israel 10/11th century M. Zulay, in: Eretz Israel, 4 (1956), 138–44; Habermann, Ateret, 123–4, 227. Judah b. Isaac *ibn Ghayyat *Judah b. Isaac ibn Shabbetai Judah (Leone) b. Isaac *Sommo Judah b. Israel Berechiah Fontanella Italy b. 1719 M. Zulay, Zur Liturgie der Babylonischen Juden (1933); 23–24, 67–68. Judah b. Jo(seph) early poet E. Fleischer, in: Tarbiz, 38 (1969), 280–1. Judah b. Joseph Segelmesi North Africa 14/15th century S. Bernstein, in: Horeb, 12 (1956), 217–33. Judah b. Kalonymus b. Moses Mainz 12th century J. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 38–41. Judah b. Menahem Rome 12th century Schirmann, Italyah, 76–77.   piyyut *Judah b. Menahem of Rome Judah b. Moses 16th century Bernstein, Piyyutim, 62. Judah b. Moses Alfaqui Turkey 16th century J. Schirmann, in: KS, 12 (1935–36), 293, 521–3. Judah b. Moses *Leonte Judah b. Moses of Saltars Italy b. 1550? M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 313–5, 341–5. Judah b. Samuel *Abbas *Judah Halevi Judah Levi Toabah Salonika? 17th century M. Attias, in: Sefunot, 1 (1958), 128–40. Judah Maẓli'aḥ Padova Modena d. 1728 J. Schirmann, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 102; G. Laras, in: Scritti in memoria di A. Milano (1970), 193–203. Judah *Zarco *Kalila and Dimna Kalon ha-Romi Byzantium 9th century Schirmann, Shirim Hadashim, 424–6. *Kalonymus b. Judah the Younger Kalonymus b. Kalonymus (see *Kalonymus family ) Kalonymus b. Shabbetai Rome, Worms 1030–1096 Schirmann, Italyah, 62–67. Kalonymus ha-Nasi (see *Kalonymus family ) Italy 13th century Kalonymus ha-Zaken Italy 10th century Leon b. Michael ha-Parnas Greece 14th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 30–33 (Heb. part). Leonte b. Abraham Rome 12th century Schirmann, Italyah, 70–73, 543. Leonte b. Moses Rome 12th century Schirmann, Italyah, 80–81. Levi b. Jacob *ibn Altabban Malkiel b. Meir Greece or Italy 11th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 45–51 (Heb. part). *Mattathias Italy 13th century Schirmann, Italyah, 179–81. Mazzal Tov b. David Constantinople 15/16th century I.D. Markon, in: Sefer ha-Yovel …A. Marx (1950), 322. Meir *Abulafia Meir b. Abraham Bulgaria, Safed 16th century A. Marmorstein, in: Alim, 3 (1937), 15–16. *Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg *Meir b. Isaac Sheli'aḥ Ẓibbur Meir b. Moses Rome 13th century J. Schirmann, in: KS, 37 (1962), 405, no. 1140. Menahem b. Aaron Germany 12th century? S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 209–10. *Menahem b. Jacob *Menahem b. Jacob ibn Saruq Menahem b. Mordecai ha-Parnas Corizzi Italy J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 101–5, 109–20. *Meshullam b. Moses Mainz d. 1094/5 A.N.Z. Roth, in: Zion, 28 (1963), 233–5; E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem of Azriel b. Abraham, 4 (1963), 17, 52–54. Meshullam ha-Sofer Italy 14th century Schirmann, Italyah, 182–3. Mevorakh b. David Ereẓ Israel early poet A. Scheiber, in: Tarbiz, 22 (1951), 167–73; 36 (1966), 92–93.   piyyut Mevorakh b. Nathan Ereẓ Israel 10th century Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 29–30. Mevorakh ha-Bavli Ereẓ Israel 11th century A.M. Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 44 (1960), 59ff.; idem, Ateret 143–4, 729. Meyuhas Italy 16th century J. Schirmann, YMḤSI, 1 (1933), 107, 125–27. Michael b. Caleb Greece 11/12th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 52–53 (Heb. part). Mordecai b. Berechiah Jare Mantua 16/17th century Simonsohn, Mantovah, 2 (1964), 522. *Mordecai b. Hillel ha-Kohen Mordecai b. Joseph Worms d. 1294 Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 52–57. Moses Ereẓ Israel early poet M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 149–54; Habermann, Ateret, 140, 229. Moses *Abbas (ibn Abez) Moses b. Abraham *Dar'I Moses b. Abraham ha-Levi Dara' (North Africa) 9th century N. Allony, in: Sinai, 43 (1958), 394. Moses b. Benjamin Sofer Rome 12th century Schirmann, Italyah, 74–75. Moses b. Ḥiyya Greece 12th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 41–44 (Heb. part). Moses b. Isaac Spain 11th century H. Brody, in: Keneset, memorial volume to Ḥ.N. Bialik, 1 (1936), 410–5. Moses b. Isaac Tyre early poet M. Zulay in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 171–4. Moses b. Isaac b. Jacob Grenoble 13th century? H. Schirmann, in: Zion, 19 (1954), 66. Moses b. Isaac Da *Rieti Schirmann, Italyah, 195–9. Moses b. Isaac *Remos Moses b. Israel Finzi Italy 16th century M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 317–8, 351–3. *Moses b. Jacob Moses b. Jacob (Abu Haruūn) *ibn Ezra Moses b. Joseph Rome 13th century Schirmann, Italyah, 110–5. *Moses b. Kalonymus *Moses b. Levi Moses b. Maẓli'aḥ A. Mirsky, in: KS, 34 (1959), 363–7. *Moses b. Mevorakh Moses b. Naḥman (*Naḥmanides ) *Moses (b. Nethanel) Nathan Moses b. Samuel b. Absalom France? 12th century S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 10 (1939), 15–19. Moses b. Samuel ha-Kohen *Gikatilla Moses b. Shabbetai Rome 11th century Schirmann, Italyah, 60–61; Bernstein, Piyyutim, 41–44, 77–78. *Moses b. Shem Tov de Leon Moses b. Shem Tov *Gabbai Moses b. Shem Tov Ḥazzan Spain, North Africa 14/15th century A.M. Habermann, in Tarbiz, 14 (1943), 54, 67–69. Moses b. Shem Tov *ibn Habib Moses b. Solomon d'Escola *Gerondi Moses b. Zur Morocco 17/18th century N. Ben-Menahem, in: Aresheth, 2 (1960), 383–6.   piyyut Moses ha-Kohen ibn Gikatilla Spain 11th century A. Scheiber, in: Alexander Marx Jubilee Volume (1950), 537–8 (Heb. part). Moses Ḥayyim b. Abraham Catalano Padua, Montagnana d. 1661 B. (C.) Roth in: Kobez al-Jad, 4 (1946), 99–101. Moses *ibn Al-Taqana Moses *Kilki Moses Mevorakh Crimea 15/16th century S. Bernstein, in: Sefer Yovel li-Khevod S.K. Mirsky (1958), 406, 479–86. Moses *Zacuto (Zacut) Mubbashshir b. Ephraim he-Haver Orient 11th century A.M. Habermann, Ateret, 160–1. Nahum Spain? 13th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 459–62. Nahum b. Joseph al-Bardani Babylonia 11th century A. Scheiber, in: Zion, 30 (1965), 123. Nathan b. Isaac Mainz 12/13th century A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Sept. 20. 1968). Nathan b. Samuel he-Ḥaver Egypt 12th century J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 291–7. Nehemiah Orient 12/13th century S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 215. Nehemiah b. Menahem Calomiti Crete 15th century M.D. Cassuto, in: Sefer ha-Hovel… S. Krauss (1936), 211–6. Nehemiah b. Solomon b. Heiman ha-Nasi Babylonia? 10/11th century M. Zulay, YMḤSI, 4 (1938), 197–246. Nethanel b. Naaman Corfu 16th century S. Bernstein, Piyyutim, 81–83. Nethanel b. Nehemiah Caspi Provence 15th century S. Bernstein, in: Tarbiz, 10 (1939), 26–29. *Nissi (Nissim) b. Berechiah al-Nahrawani *Ohev b. Meir ha-Nasi Perfet Zark Spain 14th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (19602), 544–6. Pesaḥ b. Abraham ha-Kohen Germany 13th century E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem of Abraham b. Azriel, 1 (1939), 281; 4 (1963), 122. *Phinehas b. Jacob ha-Kohen (Kafra) *Phinehas b. Joseph ha-Levi Rahamim Kalai Egypt 17th century M. Wallenstein, in: Sefer Ḥayyim Schirmann (1970), 111–34. Raphael b. Isaac de-Faenza Florence 15th century Schirmann, Italyah, 203–5, 573. Raphael Joseph b. Johanan Treves Italy 16th century M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 318–9, 353–6. Rehabiah b. Judah France 11/12th century H. Brody, in: Emet le-Ya'akov, Sefer Yovel… J. Freimann (1937), 22–26. Rephaiah b. Judah Kohen Orient 12th century? S. Bernstein, in: HUCA, 16 (1941), 150–3. Reuben ha-Kohen Ḥazzan S. Abramson, in: Tarbiz, 15 (1944), 51–54. *Saadiah b. Joseph Gaon *Saadiah b. Joseph ha-Levi Saadiah b. Maimun *ibn Danan Saadiah *Longo Sahalul Yemen 15th century J. Ratzaby, in: Afikim ba-Negev, 2 (1966), nos. 15–16 Sa'id b. Babshad ha-Kohen 10/11th century Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 431–3, 482.   piyyut Saj'id Darin (or Drin), Dinar Yemen 17th century J. Ratzaby, in: Zion, 20 (1955), 32–46. Salem (Salam) Abraham b. Isaac Mantua, Venice 17th century Simonsohn, Mantjovah, 2 (1964), 529–31. Samson b. Samuel Germany, Jerusalem 14th century Habermann, Ateret 202–3, 231. Samson Kohen Modon Mantua 1679–1727 Samuel Egypt 13th century Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 134–5. Samuel Germany or France 13th century? Habermann, Ateret, 199, 230. Samuel Spain 13/14th century Habermann, Ateret, 87–88. 109–12, 166, 194, 230. Samuel *Archivolti Samuel b. Eliasaph Rome 16th century? Samuel b. Hananiah Spain 11th century S. Abramson, in: Sinai, 36 (1955), 538–42. Samuel b. Ḥayyim Greece 13/14th century Bernstein, Piyyutim, 94–101. Samuel b. Isaac Segan Leviyyah Germany 11th century S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 244–6. Samuel b. Joseph *ibn Sasson Samuel b. Joshua Minz Biritaro Mantua 16th century M. Benayahu, in: Rabbi Yosef Caro, ed. by Y. Raphael (1969), 319–20, 356–57. Samuel b. Kalonymus ha-Ḥazzan Germany d. 1241 E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem of Abraham b. Azriel, 4 (1963), 60. Samuel b. Moses Anav Bologna 16th century Bernstein, Italyah, passim. Samuel b. Moses ha-Dayyan Syria 15/16th century A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Sept. 27, 1964); J.L. Weinberger, in: Tarbitz, 38 (1969), 286–9. Samuel b. Moses ha-Levi Orient 12/13th century S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 216. Samuel b. Moses min ha-Ne'arim (Dei Fanciulli) Italy 14th century N. Pavoncello, in: Miscellanea di Studi in Memoria di D. Disegni (1969), 188–90, 192–5. Samuel b. Shalom Ereẓ Israel 8th century M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 3 (1936), 153–62; A.M. Habermann, Toledot ha-Piyyut ve-ha-Shirah (1970), 56. Samuel b. Simeon Poland 17th century A. Yaari, in KS, 16 (1939/40), 377–9. Samuel b. Zadok ibn Alamani Egypt 12/13th century A. Scheiber, in: Sefer Ḥayyim Schirmann (1970), 394–6. Samuel David *Luzzatto *Samuel ha-Nagid *Samuel ha-Shelishi b. Hoshana Saul *Caspi Shabbetai Italy 16th century S. Bernstein, in: Horeb, 5 (1939), 55. Shabbetai b. Abishai Ḥabib Corfu? 15th century Bernstein, Piyyutim, 88–89. Shabbetai b. Moses Rome 11th century Schirmann, Italyah, 39–40; Bernstein, Piyyutim, 74–77. Shabbetai Ḥayyim (Vita) *Marini Shalem *Shabazi Shape b. Said (URU?) Yemen 15th century? Y. Ratzaby, in: Be-Ma'arakhah (1969), no. 14–15. Shealtiel b. Levi Germany? 13/14th century A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (April 18, 1968). *She'erit ha-Ḥazzan   piyyut Shemariah b. Aaron ha-Kohen Babylonia 12/13th century N. Alloni in: Sinai, 58 (1966), 136–7; D. Yarden, Sefunei Shirah (196), 144–8; J. Tubi, in: Ba-Ma'arakhah, 10 (1971), no. 119, 18–19. Shemariah of Rabyuano Greece 12th century J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 55–59 (Heb. part) Shem Tov *Falaquera *Shephatiah b. Amittai Sheshet Provence 12th century Habermann, Ateret, 96, 231. *Silano *Simeon b. Isaac *Simeon b. Megas ha-Kohen Simeon b. Ẓemaḥ *Duran Simeon Labi Spain, North Africa d. 1545 A.M. Habermann, in: Maḥanayim, 56 (1961), 42–45. Simḥah b. Samuel Germany 12/13th century A.M. Habermann, in: Haaretz (Aug. 19, 1963). Simḥah *Issachar Schirmann, Italyah, 350–3. *Sindabar Solomon Abu Ayyuv ibn Al Muallim Seville, Morocco 11/12th century Schirmann, Sefarad, 1 (19592), 541–3. Solomon al-Kufi Ḥazzan 10/11th century A.M. Habermann, Be-Ron Yaḥad (1945), 35. Solomon b. David ha-Rifi Egypt 11/12th century? N. Alloni, in: Sinai, 64 (1969), 22–23. Solomon b. Elijah Sharvit ha-Zahav ha-Levi Salonika 15th century A. Ovadiah, in: Sinai, 6 (1940), 78–79; S.H. Kook, Iyyunim u-Meḥkarim, 2 (1963), 216–9; I.M. Molho, in: Oẓar Yehudei Sefarad, 3 (1960), 80–82. Solomon b. Immanuel Da Piera or De Pierrelatte S. France 14th century M. Catane, in: KS, 42 (1966–67), 399–402; 43 (1967–68), 160. Solomon b. Isaac Italy 14th century Schirmann, Italyah, 186. Solomon b. Isaac (*Rashi ) Solomon b. Isaac b. Meir Gaon Syria 11th century M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 175–7. Solomon b. Isaac *Gerondi Spain 13th century S. Bernstein, Al-Naharot Sefarad (1956), 146–51, 254–6. Solomon b. Judah ha-Bavli Solomon b. Judah ibn *Gabirol Solomon (b. Judah?) ibn Ghiyyat Spain 12th century J. Schirmann, in: YMḤSI, 6 (1945), 261. Solomon b. Mazzal Tov Constantinople 16th century I.D. Markon, in: Sefer ha-Yovel… A. Marx (1950), 321–49; idem, in: Melilah, 3/4 (1950), 260–75. Solomon b. Menahem Germany 13th century D. Goldschmidt, in: Maḥanayim, 60 (1961), 62–63. Solomon b. Moses Dei Rossi Rome 13th century Schirmann, Italyah, 105–6. Solomon b. Reuben *Bonafed Solomon b. Said Yemen 16th century J. Ratzaby, in: Oẓar Yehudei Sefarad, 2 (1959), 85, 88. Solomon b. Samson Germany 11th century A.R. Malachi, Bitzaron, 50 (1964), 178–80. Solomon b. Sar Shalom Yemen 16th century J. Ratzaby, in: Maḥanayim, 40 (1959), 170–92. Solomon Ḥazzan Italy 16th century Bernstein, Italyah, 44–45, 146; A. Yaari, Meḥkerei Sefer (1958), 220, 225–6.   piyyut Solomon ibn *Labi Solomon *ibn Zadbel Solomon Kohen Orient Jabermann, Ateret, 216–7. Solomon Mevorakh Turkey 16th century S. Bernstein, in: Horeb, 5 (1939), 61–62; J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 60–62 (Heb. part) *Solomon Suleiman b. Amar *Tamar b. Menahem Todros b. Judah ha-Levi *Abulafia Yaḥya b. Abraham Harazi Yemen 16/17th century Y. Ratzaby, in: Tagim, 1 (1969), 54–59. Yakar b. Samuel ha-Levi Cologne and Mainz 13th century Urbach, Tosafot, 452–3; C. Sirat, in: REJ, 118 (1959–60), 131–3. *Yannai Yanon b. Ẓemaḥ Syria 11th century M. Zulay, in: Sinai, 28 (1951), 167–9; J.L. Weinberger, in: HUCA, 39 (1968), 3–10 (Heb. part). Yo'eẓ b. Malkiel Germany 13th century A.M. Habermann, Gezerot Ashkenaz ve-Ẓarefat (1946), 194, 264. Yom Tov (Bondi), Valvason Venice 1616–1660 J. Schirmann, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 104. Yom Tov b. Isaac France 12th century J. Schirmann, in: Kobez al-Jad, 13 (1939), 35–37. Yom Tov Soriano Spain 15th century A.M. Habermann, in: YMḤSI, 3 (1936), 133–50. *Yose b. Yose Yudan b. Misatya ha-Kohen Greece or Italy 10th century Sefer ha-Mekorot (19702), 128. Zadok b. Aaron ibn Alamani Alexandria 12th century S. Bernstein, in: Sinai, 19 (1946), 215; idem, in: Ha-Tekufah, 32–33 (1948), 77. *Zebidah family *Zechariah al-Dahiri Ẓedakah Egypt Medieval N. Allony, in: Oẓar Yehudei Sefarad, 1 (1959), 54–61. Zedekiah b. Benjamin min ha-Anavim (Anav) Rome 13th century B. Dinur, in: Sefer Zikkaron Aryeh Leon Carpi (1967), 52–63. Ẓemaḥ b. Yanon he-Ḥazzan Syria 11th century M. Zulay, in: YMḤSI, 5 (1939), 132. Zevadiah S. Italy 9th century Schirmann, Shirim Ḥadashim, 422–4. (Abraham David)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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